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The oldest fossils of anatomically modern humans found outside Africa are the Skhul and Qafzeh hominins, who lived in the area that is now northern Israel 120,000 years ago.
Modern archaeology has largely discarded the historicity of the narrative in the Torah concerning the patriarchs, The Exodus, and the conquest described in the Book of Joshua, and instead views the narrative as constituting the Israelites' inspiring national myth.
Fifty of them are known and include Jerusalem, Tiberias, Ramleh, Ashkelon, Caesarea, and Gaza.
The region came to be populated predominantly by Greco-Romans on the coast and Samaritans in the hill-country.
Christianity was gradually evolving over Roman paganism, when the area stood under Byzantine rule.
In 634–641 CE, the region, including Jerusalem, was conquered by the Arabs who had just recently adopted Islam.
Control of the region transferred between the Rashidun Caliphs, Umayyads, Abbasids, Fatimids, Seljuks, Crusaders, and Ayyubids throughout the next three centuries.