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The city grew from 12,900 in 1852 to 57,700 in 1910 – of whom 84 percent were Germans and 16 percent Poles.
After World War I, despite Bromberg's German majority, it was assigned to the recreated Polish state by the 1919 Versailles Treaty.
Now officially Bydgoszcz again, the city belonged to the Poznań Voivodeship.
The local populace was required to acquire Polish citizenship or leave the country.
In 1772, in the First Partition of Poland, Bydgoszcz was acquired by the Kingdom of Prussia, renamed Bromberg, and incorporated into the Netze District in West Prussia.
At the time, the town was seriously depressed and semi-derelict.
During World War II, Bydgoszcz was occupied by Nazi Germany and annexed to the Reichsgau Danzig-West Prussia as the seat of the district or county (kreis) of Bromberg.
The city was relinquished by the Knights in 1343 with their signing of the Treaty of Kalisz along with Dobrzyń and the remainder of Kuyavia.
King Casimir III of Poland, granted Bydgoszcz city rights (charter) on 19 April 1346.
In the 15th and 16th centuries Bydgoszcz was a significant site for wheat trading.
During 1629, near the end of the Polish-Swedish War of 1626–29, the town was conquered by Swedish troops led by king Gustav II Adolph of Sweden personally.